आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

 

संदर्भ

      • हाल के घोटालों की एक श्रृंखला ने आधार-सक्षम भुगतान प्रणाली (AEPS) की कमज़ोरियों को उजागर किया है।

प्रमुख बिंदु

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान प्रणाली (AEPS)

      • AEPS एक बैंक के नेतृत्व वाला मॉडल है जो आधार प्रमाणीकरण का उपयोग करके किसी भी बैंक के बिज़नेस कॉरेस्पोंडेंट (BC)/बैंक मित्र के माध्यम से POS (प्वाइंट ऑफ सेल/माइक्रो एटीएम) पर ऑनलाइन इंटरऑपरेबल वित्तीय लेन-देन की अनुमति देता है।
      • यह प्रणाली वित्तीय लेन-देन में एक और सुरक्षा व्यवस्था है क्योंकि इन लेन-देन को करते समय बैंक विवरण प्रस्तुत करने की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है।
      • इसका परिचालन भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक (RBI) और भारतीय बैंक संघ (IBA) की एक संयुक्त पहल भारतीय राष्ट्रीय भुगतान निगम (NPCI) द्वारा किया जाता है।

 

      • AEPS के लाभ
      • बैंकों की भीड़ कम करना: अन्य माइक्रो-एटीएम प्रणालियों की तरह इसने बैंकों की भीड़भाड़ को कम करने में मदद की है। यह उन प्रवासी कामगारों के लिये विशेष रूप से उपयोगी हो सकता है जिनके पास एटीएम की सुविधा नहीं है।
      • सामाजिक सुरक्षा को मज़बूत करना: यह सरकारों से कमज़ोर नागरिकों तक नकद हस्तांतरण योजनाओं के प्रसार के बाद सामाजिक सेवाओं को मज़बूत करने में मदद करेगा।
      • लास्ट-माइल सर्विस को सक्षम करना: यह उन भुगतानों को आसान करेगा जो लंबी लेन-देन प्रक्रिया के बजाय त्वरित ढंग से किये जाएंगे।
      • इंटरऑपरेबल सिस्टम यह सुनिश्चित करता है कि ग्राहक एक बैंक के BC से बंधा नहीं है।
      • बिचौलियों को हटाना: गरीबों और अनपढ़ों का शोषण करने वाले बिचौलियों को हटाया जा सकेगा।
  •  
      • मौजूदा खामियां

      • भ्रष्ट BC: कभी-कभी BC लोगों की वित्तीय निरक्षरता का लाभ उठाते हुए उपभोक्ता को कम पैसा प्रदान करता है और खाते में अधिक धन निकासी दर्ज करता है।
      • कई बार BC गरीब लोगों को मांग करने पर रसीद देने से इनकार करते हैं।
      • भ्रष्ट BC एक निरक्षर ग्राहकों को बिना पैसे दिये किसी बहाने पीओएस मशीन में डिजिटल हस्ताक्षर करा लेते हैं ।
      • धोखाधड़ी वाले लेन-देन का कोई लेखा-जोखा नहीं: AEPS के पास धोखाधड़ी वाले BC का कोई रिकॉर्ड नहीं है, यह केवल लेन-देन रिकॉर्ड दिखाता है।
      • यह गरीब लोगों को और अधिक असुरक्षित बनाता है, जो पहले से ही धन की कमी का सामना कर रहे हैं।
      • प्रणालीगत मुद्दे: बायोमेट्रिक बेमेल, खराब कनेक्टिविटी या कुछ बैंकिंग भागीदारों की कमज़ोर प्रणाली के कारण लेन-देन में विफलता भी AEPS को प्रभावित करती है।

आगे की राह

      • वित्तीय साक्षरता प्रदान करने से धोखाधड़ी करने वाले BC के मामलों में कमी लाने में मदद मिलेगी।
      • रोमिंग BC पर कम-से-कम डिजिटल साक्षरता स्तर वाले राज्यों में प्रतिबंध लगाया जाना चाहिये।
      • AEPS धोखाधड़ी के पीड़ितों को बेहतर शिकायत निवारण सुविधाएँ उपलब्ध कराई जानी चाहिये।

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प्राचीन भारत में गणराज्य

प्राचीन भारत में गणराज्य

प्राचीन भारत में गणराज्य

 

संदर्भ

      • हाल ही में संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा को संबोधित करते हुए प्रधानमंत्री ने एक महत्त्वपूर्ण ऐतिहासिक बात कही कि भारत न केवल दुनिया का सबसे बड़ा लोकतंत्र है, बल्कि लोकतंत्र की जननी भी है।

        प्राचीन भारत में लोकतंत्र और गणतंत्रवाद के आद्य रूपों के अस्तित्व का प्रमाण है।

      • प्रमुख बिंदु

        • वैदिक शासन: वेद गणतांत्रिक शासन व्यवस्था में दो प्रकार की शासन व्यवस्थाएं विद्यमान थीं:
        • राजशाही: इसमें राजा निर्वाचित होता था। इसे लोकतंत्र का प्रारंभ माना जाता है।
        • गणतंत्र: इसमें राजा या सम्राट के बजाय शक्ति संकेंद्रण एक परिषद या सभा में निहित होती थी।
        • इस सभा की सदस्यता जन्म के बजाय कर्म सिद्धांत पर आधारित थी और इसमें ऐसे लोग शामिल होते थे जिन्होंने अपने कार्यों से खुद को प्रतिष्ठित किया था।
        • यहाँ तक ​​कि विधायिकाओं की आधुनिक द्विसदनीय प्रणाली का भी एक संकेत प्राचीन संस्था सभा के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित थी जिसमें सामान्य लोगों का प्रतिनिधित्व होता था।
        • नीति, सैन्य मामलों और सभी को प्रभावित करने वाले महत्त्वपूर्ण मुद्दों पर बहस करने के लिये विदथ का उल्लेख ऋग्वेद में सौ से अधिक बार किया गया है। इन चर्चाओं में महिलाएँ और पुरुष दोनों हिस्सा लेते थे।
      • महाभारत

      • महाभारत के शांति पर्व के अध्याय 107/108 में भारत में गणराज्यों (जिन्हें गण कहा जाता है) की विशेषताओं के बारे में विस्तृत वर्णन है। इसमें कहा गया है कि जब एक गणतंत्र के लोगों में एकता होती है तो गणतंत्र शक्तिशाली हो जाता है और उसके लोग समृद्ध हो जाते हैं तथा आंतरिक संघर्षों की स्थिति में वे नष्ट हो जाते हैं। इससे पता चलता है कि प्राचीन भारत में न केवल हस्तिनापुर और इंद्रप्रस्थ जैसे राज्य थे बल्कि ऐसे क्षेत्र भी थे जहाँ कोई राजा नहीं था बल्कि एक गणतंत्र था।

 

      • बौद्ध सिद्धांत

      • बौद्ध कैनन अर्थात् संस्कृत (जिसमें अधिकांश महायान बौद्ध साहित्य लिखा गया था) और पाली (जिसमें हीनयान साहित्य का अधिकांश भाग लिखा गया था) में भारत के प्राचीन गणराज्यों की व्यवस्था का व्यापक संदर्भ मिलता है। जैसे- वैशाली के लिच्छवी।
      • बौद्ध सिद्धांत वैशाली की मगध के साथ प्रतिद्वंद्विता का भी विस्तार से वर्णन करता है, जो एक राजतंत्र था। यदि लिच्छवियों की जीत होती तो उपमहाद्वीप में शासन की गति गैर-राजशाही व्यवस्था का और विकास होता।
      • महानिब्बाना सुत्त (पाली बौद्ध कृति) और अवदान शतक (दूसरी शताब्दी ईस्वी का एक संस्कृत बौद्ध पाठ) में भी उल्लेख है कि कुछ क्षेत्र सरकार के गणतंत्रात्मक रूप के अधीन थे।
      • बौद्ध और जैन ग्रंथों में तात्कालिक 16 शक्तिशाली राज्यों या महाजनपदों की सूची मिलती है।

 

      • ग्रीक रिकॉर्ड्स

      • ग्रीक इतिहासकार डियोडोरस सिकुलस के अनुसार, सिकंदर के आक्रमण (326 ईसा पूर्व) के समय उत्तर पश्चिम भारत के अधिकांश शहरों में सरकार के लोकतांत्रिक रूप थे (हालाँकि कुछ क्षेत्र आम्भी और पोरस जैसे राजाओं के अधीन थे) तथा इसका उल्लेख इतिहासकार एरियन द्वारा भी किया गया था।
      • सिकंदर की सेना को इन गणराज्यों की सेनाओं से भयंकर प्रतिरोध का सामना करना पड़ा। उदाहरणस्वरुप मल्लों आदि से भारी हानि झेलने के बाद सिकंदर को जीत हासिल हुई थी।

 

      • कौटिल्य का अर्थशास्त्र

      • लोकतंत्रात्मक स्वरुप के अन्य स्रोत पाणिनि की अष्टाध्यायी, कौटिल्य का अर्थशास्त्र आदि हैं।
      • कौटिल्य द्वारा राज्य के तत्त्व: किसी भी राज्य को सात तत्त्वों से बना माना जाता है। पहले तीन स्वामी या राजा, अमात्य या मंत्री (प्रशासन) और जनपद या प्रजा हैं।
      • राजा को प्रजा की भलाई के लिये अमात्यों की सलाह पर कार्य करना चाहिये।
      • मंत्रियों को लोगों के बीच से नियुक्त किया जाता है (अर्थशास्त्र में प्रवेश परीक्षा का भी उल्लेख है)।
      • अर्थशास्त्र के अनुसार, प्रजा के सुख और लाभ में राजा का सुख और लाभ निहित है।
      • स्रोत: इंडियन एक्सप्रेस

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COVID-19: WHO forms scientific advisory group to identify Coronavirus origin, says it may be ‘last chance’

COVID-19: WHO forms scientific advisory group to identify Coronavirus origin, says it may be ‘last chance’

COVID – 19: WHO forms scientific advisory group to identify, coronavirus origin, says it may be last chance 

While talking about its new scientific advisory group, WHO said that, it may be ‘our last chance’ to determine the origins of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. It also urged China to provide the data from the early cases.

Why in News?

      • The World Health Organization on October 13, 2021, named the 26 experts forming its new Scientific Advisory Group on the origins of novel pathogens (SAGO). The group formed by the global health body includes several who served on its mission to Wuhan, China, to probe the source of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

        The statement by WHO named the 26 proposed members ahead of a two-week period of the public consultation, including Thea Fisher, Marian Koopmans, Hung Nguyen, and Chinese animal health expert Yang Yungui, who also took part in the joint investigation in 2021.

        While talking about its new scientific advisory group, WHO said that, it may be ‘our last chance’ to determine the origins of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. It also urged China to provide the data from the early cases.

WHO’s previous probe in China to identify COVID-19 origin

      • The first human cases of Coronavirus were reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. China has repeatedly dismissed the theory that the virus leaked from one of its laboratories and has also said that no more visits are required from WHO experts investigating the origin of the virus.

        A WHO-led team had spent almost four weeks in and around Wuhan earlier in 2021 with scientists from China and had said in a joint report in March 2021 that the virus had probably transmitted from bats to humans through another animal; however, further research was needed.

        As per the director-general of WHO Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the investigation was held back due to the shortage of raw data pertaining to the first days of the outbreak and has called for lab audits.

Key Points

Dozens of studies needed to study COVID origin

      • The WHO Technical lead on COVID-19, Maria Van Kerkhove voiced hope that there would be further WHO-led international missions to China that will engage the country’s complete cooperation.

        She further added that more than three dozen recommended studies must be carried out to determine how the virus crossed from the animal species to humans.

        Van Kerkhove said that the reported Chinese testing for the antibodies in Wuhan residents in 2019 will be extremely critical to understand the virus’s origins.

    •  
      • WHO’s top emergency expert said that the newly formed panel may be the last chance to establish the origins of SARS-CoV-2, “a virus that stopped the whole world”.

China on WHO’s probe into origins of COVID-19

      • China’s Ambassador to the UN in Geneva, Chen Xu said that the conclusions of the previous joint study were perfectly clear, adding that the international teams had been sent to China twice already. He added that it is time to send teams to other places as well.

        Chen said that if we are going to continue with scientific research, it should be a joint effort based on science and not by the intelligence agencies.

      • Background

        China came under international scrutiny after the COVID-19 pandemic hit the world in 2020. A rigorous investigation was demanded by the US as well as other nations on the origins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus which was assumed to have been originated from one of the labs in Wuhan, China. The country reported its first human cases of COVID-19 in December 2019.

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Centre to increase coal production to 2 million tones per day in a week

Centre to increase coal production to 2 million tones per day in a week

Centre to increase coal production to 2 million tonnes per day in a week 

India Coal Crisis: Government is boosting it’s per day coal production from 1.94 million to 2 million tonnes within a week. Know key details.

Why in News?

      • The Central Government is boosting its per day coal production from 1.94 million to 2 million tonnes within a week to meet the rampant demand for coal by states, power companies, and railways. Coal Minister Pralhad Joshi on October 13 tweeted that coal shipments to thermal power plants have surpassed 2 million tonnes per day from 1.87 million tonnes per day as of October 11. Use of local coal up to a 10 per cent blend of imported coal has been granted to permit power generators to increase coal stocks.

        As per government sources to ANI, “There is no shortage in the daily supply of coal to states and power companies. About 5 days stock of coal is being maintained and the situation will be back to normal in a month’s time.”

India’s Coal Crisis: States owe Rs 20,000 crores to Coal India: Govt sources

      • Many reasons are being considered for the current coal shortage in the country. As per media reports, the Coal Ministry since January 2021 has been issuing notices to several states to stock coal in their respective states but no action was taken. Coal India can stock up to a limit because stocking more than the limit poses a risk of fire.

        Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Rajasthan did not do much on extracting coal despite having their own mines in the states. Reports state that despite clearances, several states did not do sufficient mining amid the COVID pandemic and rains as reasons.

        Reports also noted that several states are under debt from Coal India. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu are among the big defaulters. As per government sources, states have dues of Rs 20,000 crores to be paid to Coal India Limited.

Monsoons, Rising Coal Prices, Surge in Industrial Power Demand

      • Prolonged Monsoons, a fall in imports, rising coal prices, and a surge in industrial power demand in India are adding to the current shortage of coal.

        Prolonged monsoons have led to lower production and lesser coal-stock accumulation by thermal power plants. The difference between global coal prices and domestic prices has caused a 12 per cent fall in imports of foreign coal which in turn has led to rising high coal prices.

        Adding to that, industrialization and electrification of villages have also fueled the surge in industrial power demand for coal in India. Reports state that Punjab and Delhi recently shut their coal plants in Bhatinda and Ropar.

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Draft EPR Notification: Centre announces targets to manage plastic packaging waste – All you need to know

Draft EPR Notification: Centre announces targets to manage plastic packaging waste – All you need to know

Draft EPR Notification: Centre announces targets to manage plastic packaging waste – All you need to know 

The Environment Ministry has released a draft EPR notification under Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016. Know key details.

Why in News?

      • The Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change on October 6, 2021, released a draft notification for regulation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) under Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016. The Draft EPR Notification lays out the target quantity of waste that the plastic packaging generating producers, brand owners, and importers in India will have to treat, recycle, reuse, or dispose of after the consumer has used the plastic packaging or material. The Draft EPR mandates plastic packaging producers to collect all their produce by 2024 and ensure a minimum percentage of the produce is recycled or used in supply.

        The Draft EPR Notification is expected to come into force by December 6, 2021. As of now, it is open to public feedback.

Draft EPR Notification – Key Points

      • Producers’ Mandate

        The Draft EPR mandates plastic packaging producers to collect all their produce by 2024 and ensure a minimum percentage of the produce is recycled or used in supply. The producers will be also mandated to declare to the government their annual plastic produce through a central website.

        End-of-Life Disposal

        The producers can only send a fraction of plastic for end-of-life disposal as those plastic items cannot be recycled such as multi-layered-multi material plastics including waste to energy, road construction, waste to oil, and cement kilns. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will only prescribe the permitted methods for the end-of-life disposal methods.

        Three categories of plastic packaging

        The draft notification for regulation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) under Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016 falls into three categories of plastic packaging:

        • Category 1 – Rigid Plastic which cannot be easily squeezed or destroyed,
        • Category 2 –Flexible Plastic which contains packaging of a single layer or multilayer (more than one layer with different types of plastic), plastic covers or sheets, carry bags including compostable plastic bags, plastic pouches, or sachet,
        • Category 3 – Multi-layered Plastic which comprises one layer of plastic and one layer of material other than plastic.

        Targets

        Progressively higher targets will be witnessed every year. The target quantity of waste that the plastic packaging generating producers, brand owners, and importers in India will have to collect, treat, recycle, reuse, or dispose of after the consumer has used the plastic packaging or material are:

        • 35 per cent of the target in 2021-22
        • 70 per cent of the target by 2022-23
        • 100 per cent of the target by 2024

        In 2024, a minimum 5 per cent of their rigid plastic (category 1) and 30 per cent of their flexible plastic, and multi-layered plastic (category 2 and 3).

        After 2026-27, 80 per cent of their rigid plastic (category 1) and 60 per cent of their flexible plastic and multi-layered plastic (category 2 and 3) will need to be recycled.

        For companies that use packaging material as well as import, they are to follow similar rules with some slight variations.

        Fine

        The plastic packaging generating companies that fail to meet their targets or do not purchase enough credits to fulfill their annual target will be required to pay a fine. However, if they manage to fulfill their targets within 3 years, they will get a 40 per cent refund. Whereas, the money will be forfeited, if it takes longer than 3 years.

        Funds collected this way will be kept in an escrow account. These funds can be utilized to collect and recycle/end-of-life disposal of uncollected and non-recycled/non-end-of-life disposal of plastic packaging waste on which the environmental compensation is levied.

        Non-Compliance

        However, non-compliance with the rules will not attract a traditional fine but instead; an environmental compensation will be levied. The rules do not mention the amount of environmental compensation as of now.

        EPR Certificate                 

        The Draft specifies a system wherein producers and users of plastic packaging can collect Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) certificates and trade in them.

        However, if one is unable to meet their obligations, they will be permitted to buy certificates on a ‘case by case basis’ which will aid them in making up the shortfall from organizations that have used recycled items in excess of their obligation.

        Ban on Plastic Products 

        The Draft specifies a ban on the manufacture of a range of plastic products from July 2022. These include plastic sticks for balloons, ear buds with plastic sticks, plastic flags, thermocol for decoration, cups, plates, candy sticks, ice-cream sticks, glasses, cutlery including spoons, forks, straws, knives, trays, packing or wrapping films, invitation cards, stirrers, cigarette packets, and PVC or plastic banners less than 100 microns.

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) – Background

      • The Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) in India was first introduced in 2012 to manage electronic waste. After the notification of the Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016, the EPR was extended to plastic manufacturers.

        The Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016 mandated the manufacturers of plastic packaging including producers, importers, and brand owners to be accountable for the management of the end waste (that is after the consumer has used the plastic product). The mechanism to be accountable for the end-plastic waste has been laid out in the Draft EPR Rules that were issued in June 2020.

        The Environment Ministry on June 26, 2020, had released the Draft Uniform Framework for Extended Producer Responsibility under Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016.

        Plastic Waste in India – Statistics

        As per the Annual Report 2017-18 by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), about 660,787.85 tonnes per annum of total plastic waste was generated. On a daily basis, India generated 25,940 tonnes of plastic waste of which 40 per cent was uncollected.

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