आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान में खामियां

 

संदर्भ

      • हाल के घोटालों की एक श्रृंखला ने आधार-सक्षम भुगतान प्रणाली (AEPS) की कमज़ोरियों को उजागर किया है।

प्रमुख बिंदु

आधार-सक्षम भुगतान प्रणाली (AEPS)

      • AEPS एक बैंक के नेतृत्व वाला मॉडल है जो आधार प्रमाणीकरण का उपयोग करके किसी भी बैंक के बिज़नेस कॉरेस्पोंडेंट (BC)/बैंक मित्र के माध्यम से POS (प्वाइंट ऑफ सेल/माइक्रो एटीएम) पर ऑनलाइन इंटरऑपरेबल वित्तीय लेन-देन की अनुमति देता है।
      • यह प्रणाली वित्तीय लेन-देन में एक और सुरक्षा व्यवस्था है क्योंकि इन लेन-देन को करते समय बैंक विवरण प्रस्तुत करने की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है।
      • इसका परिचालन भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक (RBI) और भारतीय बैंक संघ (IBA) की एक संयुक्त पहल भारतीय राष्ट्रीय भुगतान निगम (NPCI) द्वारा किया जाता है।

 

      • AEPS के लाभ
      • बैंकों की भीड़ कम करना: अन्य माइक्रो-एटीएम प्रणालियों की तरह इसने बैंकों की भीड़भाड़ को कम करने में मदद की है। यह उन प्रवासी कामगारों के लिये विशेष रूप से उपयोगी हो सकता है जिनके पास एटीएम की सुविधा नहीं है।
      • सामाजिक सुरक्षा को मज़बूत करना: यह सरकारों से कमज़ोर नागरिकों तक नकद हस्तांतरण योजनाओं के प्रसार के बाद सामाजिक सेवाओं को मज़बूत करने में मदद करेगा।
      • लास्ट-माइल सर्विस को सक्षम करना: यह उन भुगतानों को आसान करेगा जो लंबी लेन-देन प्रक्रिया के बजाय त्वरित ढंग से किये जाएंगे।
      • इंटरऑपरेबल सिस्टम यह सुनिश्चित करता है कि ग्राहक एक बैंक के BC से बंधा नहीं है।
      • बिचौलियों को हटाना: गरीबों और अनपढ़ों का शोषण करने वाले बिचौलियों को हटाया जा सकेगा।
  •  
      • मौजूदा खामियां

      • भ्रष्ट BC: कभी-कभी BC लोगों की वित्तीय निरक्षरता का लाभ उठाते हुए उपभोक्ता को कम पैसा प्रदान करता है और खाते में अधिक धन निकासी दर्ज करता है।
      • कई बार BC गरीब लोगों को मांग करने पर रसीद देने से इनकार करते हैं।
      • भ्रष्ट BC एक निरक्षर ग्राहकों को बिना पैसे दिये किसी बहाने पीओएस मशीन में डिजिटल हस्ताक्षर करा लेते हैं ।
      • धोखाधड़ी वाले लेन-देन का कोई लेखा-जोखा नहीं: AEPS के पास धोखाधड़ी वाले BC का कोई रिकॉर्ड नहीं है, यह केवल लेन-देन रिकॉर्ड दिखाता है।
      • यह गरीब लोगों को और अधिक असुरक्षित बनाता है, जो पहले से ही धन की कमी का सामना कर रहे हैं।
      • प्रणालीगत मुद्दे: बायोमेट्रिक बेमेल, खराब कनेक्टिविटी या कुछ बैंकिंग भागीदारों की कमज़ोर प्रणाली के कारण लेन-देन में विफलता भी AEPS को प्रभावित करती है।

आगे की राह

      • वित्तीय साक्षरता प्रदान करने से धोखाधड़ी करने वाले BC के मामलों में कमी लाने में मदद मिलेगी।
      • रोमिंग BC पर कम-से-कम डिजिटल साक्षरता स्तर वाले राज्यों में प्रतिबंध लगाया जाना चाहिये।
      • AEPS धोखाधड़ी के पीड़ितों को बेहतर शिकायत निवारण सुविधाएँ उपलब्ध कराई जानी चाहिये।

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India’s first ‘One Health’ Consortium launched- All you need to know!

India’s first ‘One Health’ Consortium launched- All you need to know!

India’s first ‘One Health’ Consortium launched – All you need to know! 

‘One Health’ Consortium envisages carrying out the surveillance of significant viral, bacterial infections of zoonotic as well as the transboundary pathogens in India, including the North-eastern part of the country.

Why in News?

      • Dr. Renu Swarup, Secretary, Department of Biotechnology on October 14, 2021, virtually launched India’s first ‘One Health’ Consortium.

        The newly launched consortium envisages carrying out the surveillance of important viral, bacterial and parasitic infections of the zoonotic as well as the transboundary pathogens.

        Dr. Swarup, while speaking on the occasion, informed that the ‘One Health’ Consortium consisting of the 27 organizations led by the DBT- National Institute of Biotechnology, Hyderabad is one of the biggest health programmes that has been launched by the Indian Government in the post-COVID-19 times.

        ‘One Health’ Consortium consists of AIIMS Jodhpur, AIIMS Delhi, IVRI, Bareilly, GADVASU, Ludhiana, TANUVAS, Chennai, MAFSU, Nagpur, Assam Agricultural and Veterinary University, and many more ICAR, ICMR Centers, and wildlife agencies.

Objective :

      • ‘One Health’ Consortium envisages carrying out the surveillance of significant viral, bacterial infections of zoonotic as well as the transboundary pathogens in India, including the North-eastern part of the country.
      • The project by the Department of Biotechnology will look into the use of existing diagnostic tests.
      • As per the official statement, the project will also be responsible for the development of additional methodologies for surveillance and the understanding spread of emerging diseases.
    •  

Why ‘One Health’ Consortium is significant at present times?

      • The need for the ‘One Heath’ Consortium has increased at the time. The risk of the infectious agents capable of jumping the barriers of species has increased. Such diseases also have devastating impacts on humans, animals, health systems, and economies, requiring years of social and economic recovery.

        Sensing the urgent need, the Department of Biotechnology supported a mega consortium on ‘One Health’.

Holistic approach to understand zoonotic diseases

      • Dr. Renu Swarup, while noting that the COVID-19 pandemic has shown the relevance of ‘One Health’ principles in the governance of infectious diseases, particularly the efforts to prevent and contain zoonotic diseases throughout the world, emphasized a holistic approach in order to understand the health of humans, wildlife and animals to minimize the damage caused by the future pandemics.

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KV Subramanian steps down as Chief Economic Adviser after three-year tenure will return to academics

KV Subramanian steps down as Chief Economic Adviser after three-year tenure will return to academics

KV Subramanian steps down as Chief Economics Adviser after three-year tenure will return to academics    

KV Subramanian in a statement said, “I have decided to return back to academia following the completion of my 3-year fulfilling tenure as the Chief Economic Adviser, Government of India.”

Why in News?

      • The Chief Economic Adviser (CEA) KV Subramanian announced on October 8, 2021, that he has decided to return to academia after the completion of his three-year term in the Finance Ministry of India.

        Subramanian in a statement said, “I have decided to return back to academia following the completion of my 3-year fulfilling tenure as the Chief Economic Adviser, Government of India.”

        The Indian Government is yet to announce KV Subramanian’s successor. In a statement confirming his resignation, Subramanian also thanked Prime Minister Modi and Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman for the opportunity provided to him.

Prime Minister Modi also took to Twitter to wish KV Subramanian the very best in future endeavours.

Key Points

          KV Subramanian on PM Modi’s leadership and understanding of economic policy

      • While speaking about his tenor as the Chief Economic Adviser, Subramanian said, “I Have received tremendous encouragement and support from within the Government and have been fortunate to enjoy a warm relationship with senior functionaries. In close to three decades of my professional life, I am yet to encounter a more inspiring leader than Prime Minister Modi. His intuitive understanding of the economic policy combines with an unmistakable determination to use the same to elevate the lives of common citizens.”

        Subramanian further added that the momentous change in India’s economic thinking post the pandemic-inter alia embracing wealth creation by empowering the private sector and economic recovery driven by government capital expenditure- bears testimony to PM Modi’s leadership.

        About KV Subramanian

        • KV Subramanian had taken over the charge of Chief Economic Adviser on December 7, 2018. The appointment was made nearly five months after his predecessor Arvind Subramanian had stepped down.

        • KV Subramanian, earlier in his career, had been part of the expert committees for the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

        • Subramanian has also been well-versed with the private sector, with brief stints in top corporates including ICICI Bank, JPMorgan Chase, and Tata Consultancy Services.

        • Academically, the 50-years old has also been a part of the finance faculty at Goizueta Business School at Emory University in the US.

        • Subramanian is an alumnus of IIT Kanpur who holds a Master of Business Administration and PhD in financial economics. He completed his PhD under the supervision of Raghuram Rajan and Luigi Zingales.

Role of Chief Economic Adviser 

      • CEA (Chief Economic Adviser) is a post in the Government of India. It is equivalent to the rank of Secretary to the Government of India.

        The Chief Economic Adviser is head of the Economic Division of the Economic Affairs Department, Ministry of Finance. The extent to which the Indian Government takes into account the advice of CEA has generally been considered to be open-ended.

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Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0, AMRUT 2.0 launched by PM Narendra Modi

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0, AMRUT 2.0 launched by PM Narendra Modi

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0, AMRUT 2.0 launched by PM Narendra Modi

 

 

Why in News?

      • AMRUT 2.0 will aim to make cities self-reliant and ensuring water security. Under this mission, a drinking water survey will be conducted across the country to provide better water services to the people.

        Prime Minister Narendra Modi have launched Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0 . The missions have been designed to make all our cities ‘Garbage Free’ and ‘Water Secure.

        The missions signifies a step towards effectively addressing the challenges of rapidly urbanizing India. It will also aim to achieve the targets set under UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030.

 

Key Points

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 

      • Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban was initiated by the centre in 2014 to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management. The mission had set the aim of achieving “open-defecation free” India by October 2, 2019, on the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi.

        Other objectives of the mission included:

        -Eradication of manual scavenging

        -Generating awareness

        -Encouraging a behaviour change in sanitation practices

        -Augmentation of capacity at the local level.

      • Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0

        The Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 aims to continue the work done under the first phase of the mission and sustain the open defecation free status achieved by the areas and improve solid and liquid waste management. The mission aims at working towards target 6.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals Number 6 established by the United Nations in 2015. Under the mission, more toilets will be constructed; especially aspirational toilets will be built in high footfall areas.

    •  
      • AMRUT Mission

        Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) was launched in June 2015 by PM Narendra Modi to ensure adequate robust sewage networks and water supply to bring about a transformation in urban areas. The mission has ensured water security by adding one crore 10 lakh water tap connections and 85 lakh sewer connections in the last six years.

      • AMRUT 2.0

        AMRUT 2.0 will aim to make cities self-reliant and ensuring water security. Under this mission, a drinking water survey will be conducted across the country to provide better water services to the people.

         

Way Forward

      • Swachh Bharat and AMRUT Mission have both succeeded in bringing about transformative changes in the lives of people since their launch. The missions have not only transformed the urban landscape by adopting scientific approach and engaging citizens, but under Swachh Bharat Mission, urban areas of 35 States/ UTs have become open defecation free. 

        Besides this, over 73 lakh toilets have been built across India that has improved health and sanitation across the country and about 97 per cent homes have door to door waste collection facilities.

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